A comparative rhetorical analysis of the speeches of Queen Elizabeth II after Princess Diana’s death and about the coronavirus crisis

Реторика и аргументация: анализи, тренинги, практики

Rhetoric and Argumentation: Analyses, Trainings, Practices

Iglika Kassabova

City College and International Faculty of Sheffield University – Sofia

E-mail: iglika_kassabova@hotmail.com

Abstract: The article examines the verbal and visual rhetorics of the most prominent British royal Queen Elizabeth II during two of her most important speeches to the nation – the one after Princess Diana’s unexpected tragic death on September 5, 1997 and the one related on the coronavirus crisis in the country on April 05 2020. Both speeches will be analysed and rhetorically compared based on their communication context, genres, structures, arguments and rhetorical figures. The hypothesis is that both speeches invoke the nation’s spirit in times of uncertainty, sorrow and pain. The speeches are a contribution to rhetorical heritage and in particular to royal rhetoric in the modern world presenting and broadcasting appeals to million people and demonstrating model of rhetorical and media behaviour. At the same time video speeches are not only an instrument to send messages, they are an inseparable part of the reputation and image of Queen Elizabeth II and they show a model of how to explain values in difficult situation on personal and social levels.

Keywords: royal rhetoric, comparative rhetorical analysis, genres features, arguments and rhetorical figures.

Introduction

Jens Kieldesn claims that royal speeches are built based on constitute nationhood using all the institutional and political arguments that could trigger a nation’s pride – a common historical past, overcoming challenges, losses and victories. [1] In the context of “royal rhetoric” as part of theoretical rhetorical heritage and practices since ages, Irene Winter [2] investigates its development as part of historical narrative. Lloyd Bitzer believes that the rhetorical situation should not be restricted to the art of persuasion but it also includes other forms of discourse that are very much explicable in situations of danger and embarrassment. [4] Therefore, these political speeches to the nation – highly watched and widely discussed – achieve certain goals that could be systemised based on comparative rhetorical analysis.

Method and Research

This rhetorical analysis should be set in a certain historical and communicational context and should identify “the characteristics of the speaker and the audience, exploring genre features, presenting arguments and rhetorical figures as well as non-verbal and visual communication and the effects of royal rhetoric”. [5] Not only verbal, but also visual rhetorics should be take into consideration, as royal speeches in their essence are not created by their orators. Therefore, the appearance of the royalty, her rhetorical gift, the surrounding, her dress and accessories and her non-verbal communication also should be considered as part of the whole public speech. [6] The comparative rhetorical analysis is done based on certain common criteria for both main speeches, as they both will be discussed based on the conditions, changes and rhetorical working through both researcher’s and public opinion. [7] [8] A critical discourse analysis and virtual media communication strategies are part of the broader analysis of both speeches.

Rhetorical situations, places and contexts

On April 5th, 2020 Queen Elizabeth II gives a rare emotional address in the light of the coronavirus pandemic, broadcast on the BBC. She addresses the nation for the fifth public statement over her 68 years on the throne, besides the traditional annual Christmas addresses. Although the coronavirus pandemic is one of the most large-scale crises and the speech of the Queen is urgent in its nature, she has had the time to plan it in advance. Her Majesty, who has lived through a multitude of crises, invokes the nation’s spirit in a compassionate speech, as she did just few times before – one of which after the death of Princess Diana in 1997.

The Queen’s speech on September 5, 1997, on the other hand, addresses the nation after the tragic loss of Princess Diana. It is live, not recorded, and comes after days of criticism and anger for the Queen sticking to protocol after Diana’s death. It is an unusual rhetorical situation that leads to the “unusual” decision of Queen Elizabeth II to talk to the nation in person.

The princess of Wales, ex-wife of the heir to the throne Prince Charles, was killed in a high-speed car crash in Paris on August 31st, 1997, prompting an unprecedented outpouring of public grief. On the eve of Diana’s funeral, the queen, dressed in black and with a backdrop of crowds of mourners outside Buckingham Palace, addresses the nation speaking “from the heart as both queen and a grandmother.” [9]

The pre-recorded statement provoked by COVID-19 is recorded in Windsor Castle, an iconic place in British history. In her speech, the Queen emphasises this fact and goes back to 1940, when Elizabeth and Margaret officially addressed the children who had been evacuated from their homes and sent away at the beginning of World War II: “It reminds me of the very first broadcast I made, in 1940, helped by my sister. We, as children, spoke from here at Windsor to children who had been evacuated from their homes and sent away for their own safety”. [10] This is a “conceptual statement” carrying elements of common values and a shared cause in difficult time when more faith and hope is needed. [11]

Queen Elizabeth II: social status, role, rhetorical obligations

Queen Elizabeth II is a constitutional monarch and as being Britain’s head of state, her executive powers are limited by constitutional rules. Her role is mostly symbolic – she represents Britain on state visits and on ceremonial occasions. But she is the one and only who can comfort the nation in times of crises, as well as the one and only who could gather everyone’s attention either live or in front of the TV screens in turbulent times.

Britain’s Queen Elizabeth II is a splendid orator, although she is not really “verbose and she does not seek unnecessary public attention; she is aware of her status and obligations and she is known to speak only at significant events”. [12]

Both speeches could confirm these strengths of hers as an orator. In the first speech she uses more adjectives that additionally legitimise the status of princess Diana as a cult figure, being “an exceptional and gifted human being”. [13] In her rare televised speech focusing on the coronavirus she offers neither bluster, nor drama, nor scolding reminder about the fragility of the humankind. Instead, she offers comfort, gratitude to her nation’s health workers and all these on the front line, a belief that life will go back to normal.

Queen Elizabeth II skilfully uses her perfect diction throughout both speeches in order to comfort the nation – in the first case going through the devastating death of their young Princess, the second time – facing the challenges of the pandemic, social distancing and emerging economic crisis.

Audience

Both speeches use one and the same medium – television, positioning them as being part of the virtual rhetorical analyses. They are aiming to reach broad heterogenous audiences, covering topics important for the whole nation.

The message about Princess Diana’s death was seen by 32 million viewers, the coronavirus speech by 23,3 million making it the second most-watched broadcast this year in Britain following Boris Johnson’s statement announcing strict new coronavirus restrictions (watched by 27 million people).

Genre features

Although both speeches use the medium of television, they are different in their nature. The mourning one is live, in the background are all the people gathering to show their love to Diana. The speech refers to royal rhetoric – “on behalf of my family”, “in good times and bad times”. [14] The coronavirus one refers in a broader sense to the political rhetoric, discussing the crisis in political and social life.

In the coronavirus speech, unlike her traditional Christmas addresses, Queen Elizabeth II supports her extraordinary appeal with video footage of health care workers, food providers, soldiers and all these citizens being in “such challenging times”. [15] At one of the most dramatic moments in the human history it is not enough for her to instill hope and faith in difficult times, but to show her gratitude to the nation she is always so proud of.

The multimodality royal rhetoric is present in both speeches, covering royal verbal, visual rhetoric and virtual rhetoric. [16]

A comparative critical discourse analysis

In 416 words in 1997 Queen Elizabeth makes her second address in public, during a rather sad and difficult time – the overwhelming sadness at Princess Diana’s death: “We have all been trying in our different ways to cope. It is not easy to express a sense of loss, since the initial shock is often succeeded by a mixture of other feelings: disbelief, incomprehension, anger – and concern for those who remain”. [17]

In 523 words, The Queen gives to the people comfort, hope and a united resolve that the Brits need more than ever during the COVID-19 pandemic. The British monarch draws on what she calls the “fellow feeling” which an empathetic approach to dealing with a common struggle can foster. She praises “heartwarming” stories of care from around the world, and expresses a hope that “in the years to come, everyone will be able to take pride in how they responded to this challenge.”

Royal language in both speeches is to do with national identity and values. The speeches show how language figures in the identification of the queen as the country’s first representative helps creating a leader identity fitting the queen’s status and role in society. According to Norman Fairclough “Leader identity in contemporary politics is built upon a tension between the public office and the private individual, the extraordinary position of leader and the ordinary person who holds it. In terms of language, this means a tension between the public language of politics and everyday life”. [18]

The Queen shares both her messages about the power of unity as the best solution in the fight against the crisis, and her speeches are primarily intended to inspire the British people and make them feel united and proud. Therefore, the use of the personal pronoun “we” has an inclusive meaning – the Queen together with her family and her nation: “We have seen”, “we have all felt those emotions”, “we have all been trying the help William and Harry”., etc. in both speeches. [19]

In the three-minute speech after Princess Diana’s death, the using of the personal pronoun “I” seem to be slightly more numerous than those of its plural form. It highlights the queen’s direct involvement in the message. It adds agency and stronger focus. Whenever the queen mentions Diana, she uses the pronoun “I”: “I want to pay tribute to Diana myself”, “I admired and respected her…” This linguistic mechanism underlines the queen’s personal recognition of Diana and appreciation of the values the princess embraced. The queen also uses the pronoun “I” when stating the sad consequences of Diana’s death: “I for one believe that there are lessons to be drawn from her life…”. [20]

In the short four-minute address about COVID-19 she uses the personal pronoun “I” nine times, mostly in the introduction and the first part of the body of the speech. In the middle of the text it is transformed into “we”, which is used 15 times in the whole address: “I am speaking to you at what I know is an increasingly challenging time.”… “This time we join with all nations across the globe in a common endeavour, using the great advances of science and our instinctive compassion to heal. We will succeed – and that success will belong to every one of us. ” The Queen does not judge the times but analyses them based on her perspective and understanding. This address is personal, as well – she is not only the symbol of the monarchy, but also a mother whose child Prince Charles went through the hell of the coronavirus. She is also a neighbour. [21]

In the introduction of her speech in 2020 the British monarch draws on what she calls the “fellow feeling” which an empathetic approach to dealing with a common struggle can foster. She praises “heartwarming” stories of care from around the world, and expressed a hope that “in the years to come, everyone will be able to take pride in how they responded to this challenge.”

She begins her speech with an introduction that expresses her gratitude to all those who are on the front line: “I am sure the nation will join me in assuring you that what you do is appreciated and every hour of your hard work brings us closer to a return to more normal times.”

The “day-to-day duties outside the home in support of us all” are not only mentioned by one of the most important people in Great Britain. They are presented with video footage that visually support the words of the Queen. All these people on the front line are working for the nation. A nation that is “staying at home” and therefore also need to be supported: “I also want to thank those of you who are staying at home, thereby helping to protect the vulnerable and sparing many families the pain already felt by those who have lost loved ones.”

The heroes nowadays are not politicians, neither superheroes from cartoons, they are the real, ordinary people – those who suffer because of the loss of beloved ones, who are working day and night in hospitals, stores and logistic companies, those who decide for social distancing in order to save lives.

In the main part of the coronavirus speech the words of Elizabeth II mark a rare contrast to the nation-focused rhetorics which have characterised the much of the response to the pandemic so far. Though the Queen as a representative figure of the monarchy has the luxury of “expressing support rather than addressing practical enforcement or policy, by promoting a spirit of compassion”, the Queen also sidesteps the problematic habit of many world leaders who have relied on war-like language.

In the face of such an overwhelming danger as the coronavirus, it makes sense for leaders to invoke memories of collective threats. And the Queen does it with the focus on shared empathy, rather than reimagining a deadly enemy. Hearkening back to her first-ever public broadcast in 1940 at the age of 14, when she addresses evacuee children alongside her sister Princess Margaret from Windsor Castle, Queen Elizabeth notes that like now, many people then were experiencing a “painful sense of separation from their loved ones.” [22]

The main part of the speech again emphasises on the strength of the nation: “I hope in the years to come everyone will be able to take pride in how they responded to this challenge. And those who come after us will say the Britons of this generation were as strong as any. That the attributes of self-discipline, of quiet good-humoured resolve and of fellow-feeling still characterise this country. The pride in who we are is not a part of our past, it defines our present and our future.”  [23]

Arguments and rhetorical figures

Traditionally, the Queen’s broadcasts are often considered as a mere formality with no political impact. But a careful analysis of their contents and images reveal historical facts and attitudes of the utmost importance. Therefore, it is not surprising that the Queen decides to connect one of the most tragic historical periods of the world’s history to the recent pandemic crisis. Even if it is clear that politics should not be in the game, Elizabeth emphasises on the importance of the notion of the British glorious nation.

While the Queen has the advantage of being a symbol of the monarchy in Great Britain, she chooses to focus on the feelings of the people, rather than the imagined personal malevolence of the coronavirus, much different from what most of the world leaders do.

In both speeches, the personal pronouns “I” and “we” are repeated many times, as I mentioned above. They give the feeling of a shared destiny, collective memory and being part of one and the same nation: “Together we are tackling this disease, and I want to reassure you that if we remain united and resolute, then we will overcome it.”

Due to the fact that the Queen herself referred to the radio address on 13 October 1940, in that speech the personal pronoun “we” was used ten times [24]: “To you, living in new surroundings, we send a message of true sympathy and at the same time we would like to thank the kind people who have welcomed you to their homes in the country.” [25]

There are many repetitions in the speeches referring to the more normal past and the need to overcome the turbulent present based on the glorious and noble behaviour and attitude: “if we remain united and resolute, then we will overcome it”, “to more normal times”, “to take pride in how they responded to this challenge”, “an expression of our national spirit”. [26]

The Queen hyperbolises the heroism of the ordinary people in order to inspire more respect, to praise even the most basic jobs and to encourage the nation to keep moving: “here are lessons to be drawn from her life and from the extraordinary and moving reaction to her death”. [27]

Both speeches do not include rhetorical questions because they are somehow aggressive and provoking and the orator does not want any diversification of the style of the speech. The style is official, but somehow personal, in tune with the image of a public figure who needs to unite the nation in turbulent times.

But Elizabeth remembers some very important symbols expressing the support to the nation – the applauses for the people on the front line and the rainbows drawn by the children in the coronavirus speech: “The moments when the United Kingdom has come together to applaud its care and essential workers will be remembered as an expression of our national spirit; and its symbol will be the rainbows drawn by children.” And these two symbols are not local – they are across all national boundaries. The applauses symbolise the respect for the actions today, the rainbows – the hope for the future not only in Great Britain but in the whole world. [28]

In the times of suffering for the loss of Diana, she uses the opportunity to thank all these British “who have brought flowers, sent messages, and paid your respects in so many ways to a remarkable person. These acts of kindness have been a huge source of help and comfort”, turning very logical gestures of love into heroism. [29]

Nonverbal behaviour

As an experienced speaker, Elizabeth uses limited gestures as a technique that enhances the importance of the situation and emphasises the influence of her words. She handles her facial expressions skilfully, accentuating a higher tone of important elements of speech, constantly trying to control her emotions. In her first speech the Queen is situated outside Buckingham Palace – one of the symbols of the monarchy. In her coronavirus speech the Queen is situated in the beautiful Windsor Castle – another powerful icon of the monarchy.

Her outdoor appearance aims to stress on the urgency of the situation, of this unseen till then live speech – as said before urgent times expect urgent measures. And because Elizabeth II’s reaction was delayed, her live session was a must for saving her dignity in these times. The crowd outside is not “directed”, it is naturally moving on the background, people are gathering to show their love for Diana. The Queen herself looks very natural on the TV screen, as if she has had a really rough week – losing a very close to her person. The queen’s image projected over the image of the crowds gathering in the streets around the royal palace, the voice of the queen heard against a vibration coming from outside are the components of a highly symbolic image – “the queen is represented here as the unifying force of a divided country, the long-awaited sovereign expected to fill the vacuum left by a sudden and useless death”. [30]

Anxiety shows on her face and transpires in her gestures. Although the queen is filmed from her waist up, a closer look reveals that she is swinging back and forth This is an indicator of the queen’s attempt to control her feelings and strike a balance between her inner emotions and her posture. The eye blink is another indicator of anxiety – as on average, people blink 15 times per minute, Elizabeth II blinks around 40 times a minute that proofs her nervous condition. [31]

The coronavirus speech is set in a different context. The Queen is “at home”, looking strong and determined. The splendid room in Windsor is full with gold ornaments and rich details, but she is wearing a classical dress in a bright shade of turquoise green. Green is the colour that symbolises nature, hope, progress and growth. Additionally, it is a calming and relaxing hue, perfect for the Queen’s message and the uncertain times we are living in. Her makeup is minimalist, her haircut – conservative. But her jewellery – the pearl neckless and the elegant but discrete diamond and turquoise brooch (most possible hiding a microphone) give her a more aristocratic look and additional dignity. [32]

On the other hand, the Queen in her speech after Princes Diana’s death is wearing a black dress, similar to the one while addressing the nation after Elizabeth II’s mother passed away some years later. The pearl jewellery is also present but this time more discreet in its natural colours, corresponding to the occasion. She also wears glasses, which makes her look more stressed out and tired. In the world of royalty, this is the standard mourning outfit. [33]

Post-communicative stage

In strange times – both of mourning and self-isolation, there is only one British person who would willingly invite others to their living rooms – the Queen. Her speeches, being short but emotional, comforting, and powerful will stay as some of the greatest examples for public figures’ speeches. Therefore, once a tragedy or danger is over, the British people will expect to see their monarch again, because she has always been and will remain the symbol of a strong nation.

Conclusion
Even though most of Elizabeth II’s speeches are focused on local issues, in their conclusion they are always positioned in a more global context: “I hope that tomorrow we can all, wherever we are, join in expressing our grief at Diana’s loss, and gratitude for her all-too-short life. It is a chance to show to the whole world the British nation united in grief and respect”. [34] And “while we have faced challenges before, this one is different. This time we join with all nations across the globe in a common endeavour, using the great advances of science and our instinctive compassion to heal. We will succeed – and that success will belong to every one of us.”  [35]

The Queen’s speech on Diana’s death though criticised for saying too little too late, finds a balance between what the public expects from the royal family and what the royal family is able to offer in times of crisis. The coronavirus speech is also an unprecedented statement coming on time to support the nation in another time of crisis. Although the reasons for the speeches are somehow different, they share a lot of common rhetorics – based on both the verbal and the visual.

Citations and Notes:

[1] Kjeldsen, J. (2019). Royal Interventions in the Public Discourse on Immigration: Rhetorical Topoi on Immigration in the New Year’s Speeches of the Scandinavian Monarchs, Javnost/The Public, Routledge, April 2019: 1-6.

[2] Winter, I. J. (1981). Royal Rhetoric and the Development of Historical Narrative in NeoAssyrian Reliefs. 7 (2): 2-38. https://repository.upenn.edu/svc/vol7/iss2/2. Retrieved on 28.05.2020.

[3] Anderson, B. A. (2016). The Visual rhetoric of royalty. A masters thesis submitted to the Graduate College of Missouri State University in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts, Writing July 2016. https://bearworks.missouristate.edu/theses/2371/. Retrieved on 28.05.2020.

[4] Bitzer, L. F. (1968). The Rhetorical Situation, Philosophy & Rhetoric, 1, 10: 1-14. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40236733. Retrieved on 10.04.2020.

[5] Bitzer, L. F. (1968). The Rhetorical Situation, Philosophy & Rhetoric, 1, 10: 1-14.

[5] Mavrodieva, I. (2020). A Comparative Rhetorical Analysis of the Speeches of Queen Elizabeth II and King George VI. Rhetoric and Communications Journal, issue 43, http://rhetoric.bg/. Retrieved on 10.06.2020.

[6] Anderson, B. A. (2016). The Visual rhetoric of royalty. A masters thesis submitted to the Graduate College of Missouri State University in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts.

[7] Queen Elizabeth II Tribute to Princess Diana on the Eve of her Funeral – American Rhetoric Online Speech Bank: https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/queenelizabethprincessdianaeulogy.htm. Retrieved on 02.06.2020.

[8] The Queen Elizabeth II – The Queen’s Coronavirus broadcast: “We will meet again” – BBC. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2klmuggOElE. Retrieved on 02.06.2020.

[9] Queen Elizabeth II Tribute to Princess Diana on the Eve of her Funeral – American Rhetoric Online Speech Bank: https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/queenelizabethprincessdianaeulogy.htm. Retrieved on 02.06.2020.

[10] The Queen Elizabeth II – The Queen’s Coronavirus broadcast: “We will meet again” – BBC. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2klmuggOElE. Retrieved on 02.06.2020.

[11] Mavrodieva, I. (2020). A Comparative Rhetorical Analysis of the Speeches of Queen Elizabeth II and King George VI. Rhetoric and Communications Journal, issue 43, http://rhetoric.bg/. Retrieved on 10.06.2020.

[12] Queen Elizabeth II Tribute to Princess Diana on the Eve of her Funeral – American Rhetoric Online Speech Bank: https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/queenelizabethprincessdianaeulogy.htm. Retrieved on 10.06.2020.

[13] Telegraph Reporters (2020). The Queen’s coronavirus speech transcript: ‘We will succeed and better days will come’. The monarch invoked the Blitz spirit in a message of hope to the nation, The Telegraph, 5 April 2020.

[14] Queen Elizabeth II Tribute to Princess Diana on the Eve of her Funeral – American Rhetoric Online Speech Bank: https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/queenelizabethprincessdianaeulogy.htm. Retrieved on 10.06.2020.

[15] The Queen Elizabeth II – The Queen’s Coronavirus broadcast: “We will meet again” – BBC. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2klmuggOElE. Retrieved on 10.06.2020.

[16] Mavrodieva, I. (2020). A Comparative Rhetorical Analysis of the Speeches of Queen Elizabeth II and King George VI. Rhetoric and Communications Journal, issue 43, http://rhetoric.bg/, Retrieved on 10.06.2020. [17] Queen’s message following the death of Diana, Princess of Wales: https://www.royal.uk/queens-message-following-death-diana-princess-wales. Retrieved on 10.06.2020.

[18] Fairclough, N. (2000). New Labour, New Language? London: Routledge.

[19] Rotaru, M. C. (2010). Royal Speech Prevents Crisis Queen Elizabeth’s Speech on the Death of Princess Diana. Professional Communication and Translation Studies, 3 (1-2).

[20] Queen’s message following the death of Diana, Princess of Wales: https://www.royal.uk/queens-message-following-death-diana-princess-wales. Retrieved on 10.06.2020.

[21] Telegraph Reporters (2020). The Queen’s coronavirus speech transcript: ‘We will succeed and better days will come’. The monarch invoked the Blitz spirit in a message of hope to the nation, The Telegraph, 5 April 2020.

[22] The Queen Elizabeth II – The Queen’s Coronavirus broadcast: “We will meet again” – BBC. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2klmuggOElE. Retrieved on 05.06.2020.

[23] The Queen Elizabeth II – The Queen’s Coronavirus broadcast: “We will meet again” – BBC. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2klmuggOElE. Retrieved on 05.06.2020.

[24] Wartime broadcast 1940. https://www.royal.uk/wartime-broadcast-1940. Retrieved on 07.06.2020.

[25] Rotaru, M. C. (2010). Royal Speech Prevents Crisis Queen Elizabeth’s Speech on the Death of Princess Diana. Professional Communication and Translation Studies, 3 (1-2).

[26] The Queen Elizabeth II – The Queen’s Coronavirus broadcast: “We will meet again” – BBC. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2klmuggOElE. Retrieved on 11.06.2020.

[27] Queen’s message following the death of Diana, Princess of Wales: https://www.royal.uk/queens-message-following-death-diana-princess-wales. Retrieved on 02.06.2020.

[28] The Queen Elizabeth II – The Queen’s Coronavirus broadcast: “We will meet again” – BBC. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2klmuggOElE. Retrieved on 02.06.2020.

[29] Queen’s message following the death of Diana, Princess of Wales: https://www.royal.uk/queens-message-following-death-diana-princess-wales. Retrieved on 01.06.2020.

[30] Rotaru, M. C. (2010). Royal Speech Prevents Crisis Queen Elizabeth’s Speech on the Death of Princess Diana. Professional Communication and Translation Studies, 3 (1-2).

[31] Rotaru, M. C. (2010). Royal Speech Prevents Crisis Queen Elizabeth’s Speech on the Death of Princess Diana. Professional Communication and Translation Studies, 3 (1-2).

[32] The Queen’s Coronavirus broadcast: “We will meet again” – BBC. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2klmuggOElE. Retrieved on 01.06.2020.

[33] Queen Elizabeth II Tribute to Princess Diana on the Eve of her Funeral – American Rhetoric Online Speech Bank: https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/queenelizabethprincessdianaeulogy.htm. Retrieved on 10.06.2020.

[34] Queen Elizabeth II Tribute to Princess Diana on the Eve of her Funeral – American Rhetoric Online Speech Bank: https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/queenelizabethprincessdianaeulogy.htm. Retrieved on 10.06.2020.

[35] The Queen’s Coronavirus broadcast: “We will meet again” – BBC. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2klmuggOElE. Retrieved on 02.06.2020.

Bibliography

Anderson, B. A. (2016). The Visual rhetoric of royalty. A masters thesis submitted to the Graduate College of Missouri State University in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts, Writing July 2016. https://bearworks.missouristate.edu/theses/2371/. Retrieved on 28.05.2020.

Bitzer, L. F. (1968). The Rhetorical Situation, Philosophy & Rhetoric, 1, 10: 1-14. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40236733, Retrieved on 10.04.2020.

Fairclough, N. (2000). New Labour, New Language? London: Routledge.

Kjeldsen, J. (2019). Royal Interventions in the Public Discourse on Immigration: Rhetorical Topoi on Immigration in the New Year’s Speeches of the Scandinavian Monarchs, Javnost/The Public, Routledge, April 2019: 1-6.

Mavrodieva, I. (2020). A Comparative Rhetorical Analysis of the Speeches of Queen Elizabeth II and King George VI. Rhetoric and Communications Journal, issue 43, http://rhetoric.bg/. Retrieved on 10.06.2020. Rotaru, M. C. (2010). Royal Speech Prevents Crisis Queen Elizabeth’s Speech on the Death of Princess Diana. Professional Communication and Translation Studies, 3 (1-2).

Telegraph Reporters (2020). The Queen’s coronavirus speech transcript: ‘We will succeed and better days will come’. The monarch invoked the Blitz spirit in a message of hope to the nation, The Telegraph, 5 April 2020.

Winter, I. J. (1981). Royal Rhetoric and the Development of Historical Narrative in NeoAssyrian Reliefs. 7 (2): 2-38. https://repository.upenn.edu/svc/vol7/iss2/2. Retrieved on 28.05.2020.

Electronic Sources

The Queen’s Coronavirus broadcast: “We will meet again” – BBC. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2klmuggOElE. Retrieved on 02.06.2020.

Queen Elizabeth II Tribute to Princess Diana on the Eve of her Funeral – American Rhetoric Online Speech Bank: https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/queenelizabethprincessdianaeulogy.htm. Retrieved on 10.06.2020.

Queen’s message following the death of Diana, Princess of Wales: https://www.royal.uk/queens-message-following-death-diana-princess-wales. Retrieved on 01.06.2020.

Queen’s message following the death of Diana, Princess of Wales: https://www.royal.uk/queens-message-following-death-diana-princess-wales. Retrieved on 10.06.2020.

Queen Elizabeth II Tribute to Princess Diana on the Eve of her Funeral – American Rhetoric Online Speech Bank: https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/queenelizabethprincessdianaeulogy.htm. Retrieved on 10.06.2020.

Queen Elizabeth II Tribute to Princess Diana on the Eve of her Funeral – American Rhetoric Online Speech Bank: https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/queenelizabethprincessdianaeulogy.htm. Retrieved on 02.06.2020.

Additional Bibliography:

Kassabova, I. (2015). A new rhetorical view of media environment – from televisions to social media. Rhetoric and Communications Journal, Issue 18, http://rhetoric.bg/. Retrieved on 10.06.2020.

A transcript of Queen Elizabeth II Tribute to Princess Diana on the Eve of her Funeral

Since last Sunday’s dreadful news we have seen, throughout Britain and around the world, an overwhelming expression of sadness at Diana’s death.

We have all been trying in our different ways to cope. It is not easy to express a sense of loss, since the initial shock is often succeeded by a mixture of other feelings: disbelief, incomprehension, anger, and concern for those who remain. We have all felt those emotions in these last few days. So what I say to you now, as your Queen and as a grandmother, I say from my heart.

First, I want to pay tribute to Diana myself. She was an exceptional and gifted human being. In good times and bad, she never lost her capacity to smile and laugh, nor to inspire others with her warmth and kindness. I admired and respected her for her energy and commitment to others, and especially for her devotion to her two boys. This week at Balmoral, we have all been trying to help William and Harry come to terms with the devastating loss that they and the rest of us have suffered.

No one who knew Diana will ever forget her. Millions of others who never met her, but felt they knew her, will remember her. I for one believe there are lessons to be drawn from her life and from the extraordinary and moving reaction to her death. I share in your determination to cherish her memory.

This is also an opportunity for me, on behalf of my family, and especially Prince Charles and William and Harry, to thank all of you who have brought flowers, sent messages, and paid your respects in so many ways to a remarkable person. These acts of kindness have been a huge source of help and comfort.

Our thoughts are also with Diana’s family and the families of those who died with her. I know that they too have drawn strength from what has happened since last weekend, as they seek to heal their sorrow and then to face the future without a loved one.

I hope that tomorrow we can all, wherever we are, join in expressing our grief at Diana’s loss, and gratitude for her all-too-short life. It is a chance to show to the whole world the British nation united in grief and respect.

May those who died rest in peace. And may we, each and every one of us, thank God for someone who made many, many people happy.

A transcript of the whole speech about the coronavirus crisis “We will meet again”

I am speaking to you at what I know is an increasingly challenging time. A time of disruption in the life of our country: a disruption that has brought grief to some, financial difficulties to many, and enormous changes to the daily lives of us all.

I want to thank everyone on the NHS front line, as well as care workers and those carrying out essential roles, who selflessly continue their day-to-day duties outside the home in support of us all. I am sure the nation will join me in assuring you that what you do is appreciated and every hour of your hard work brings us closer to a return to more normal times.

I also want to thank those of you who are staying at home, thereby helping to protect the vulnerable and sparing many families the pain already felt by those who have lost loved ones. Together we are tackling this disease, and I want to reassure you that if we remain united and resolute, then we will overcome it.

I hope in the years to come everyone will be able to take pride in how they responded to this challenge. And those who come after us will say the Britons of this generation were as strong as any. That the attributes of self-discipline, of quiet good-humoured resolve and of fellow-feeling still characterise this country. The pride in who we are is not a part of our past, it defines our present and our future.  

The moments when the United Kingdom has come together to applaud its care and essential workers will be remembered as an expression of our national spirit; and its symbol will be the rainbows drawn by children. 

Across the Commonwealth and around the world, we have seen heart-warming stories of people coming together to help others, be it through delivering food parcels and medicines, checking on neighbours, or converting businesses to help the relief effort.  

And though self-isolating may at times be hard, many people of all faiths, and of none, are discovering that it presents an opportunity to slow down, pause and reflect, in prayer or meditation.

It reminds me of the very first broadcast I made, in 1940, helped by my sister. We, as children, spoke from here at Windsor to children who had been evacuated from their homes and sent away for their own safety. Today, once again, many will feel a painful sense of separation from their loved ones. But now, as then, we know, deep down, that it is the right thing to do. 

While we have faced challenges before, this one is different. This time we join with all nations across the globe in a common endeavour, using the great advances of science and our instinctive compassion to heal. We will succeed – and that success will belong to every one of us. 

We should take comfort that while we may have more still to endure, better days will return: we will be with our friends again; we will be with our families again; we will meet again.

But for now, I send my thanks and warmest good wishes to you all.  

Manuscript was submitted: 10.05.2020.

Peer Reviews: from 15.05.2020 till 30.05.2020.

Accepted: 06.06.2020

Брой 44 на сп. „Реторика и комуникации“, юли 2020 г. се издава с финансовата помощ на Фонд научни изследвания, договор № КП-06-НП1/39 от 18 декември 2019 г.

Issue 44 of the Rhetoric and Communications Journal (July 2020) is published with the financial support of the Scientific Research Fund, Contract No. KP-06-NP1/39 of December 18, 2019.