Secret Ideological-Political Messages of Hollywood Movies: Flags of Our Fathers and Examples of Honor and Courage Films

Интеркултурна комуникация, медии, изкуства

Intercultural Communication, Media, Arts

Ekrem Çelikiz

Harran University – Fine Art Faculty


Abstract: This study aims to reveal some contributions of American films to ideological discourses during the Cold War and after the end of it in terms of world political history. Moreover, it investigates how ideological l and political code-reflections are represented in those films. In this study, ideological and political representation forms implicit and explicit propaganda activities in American Hollywood films, are determined. The method of film scanning and film analysis is applied to identify cinematic elements that are used to shape the ideological discourses. As a result of the study, it is concluded that American Hollywood films effectively has used cinema as a propaganda tool.

Keywords: propoganda cinema, ideological cinema, political cinema, Hollywood secret codes, Hollywood cinema language, film language, film analysis.


Cinema is one of the important discoveries affecting the technical and artistic lifestyle of the twentieth century. Cinema began to be watched by the masses from the first years of its emergence. Cinema has been initially seen only as an entertainment tool. However, propagandists who have discovered the intense interest of the masses in cinema and people who want to spread their ideology to a wider audience have adopted cinema as a tool and have started to use it for their own purposes. Many countries have created their own cinema and effectively used the cinema in order to disseminate their own system and ideology to the mass. Cinema has been used for propaganda purposes from the outset to promote ideologies. During the Cold War, the United States fought against Russiaas its ideologically-political uncompromising rival. In that period, almost every way has been used to defeat the other side and to bring down their ideas and ideologies. Propaganda is also very important in this kind of war. Especially in American Hollywood cinema, many films were shot in parallel with the policy of the United States in foreign policy. Those films were shown not only to the American audience, but also to other countries under the US hegemony that polarized the world during the Cold War period. In those films, American culture has been constantly glorified, with its open or secret negative information about Russia throughout the Hollywodian films. For example, in those films, America has been presented as a political or cultural strong nation, justified, appreciated and admired. This was particularly observed in films that were shot in partnership with the Pentagon and the United States Department of Foreign Affairs,

In addition to its dramaturgical and ideological points, American cinema has demonstrated its impact with stereotypical Hollywood cinema and has begun to use propaganda globally. Nowadays, the Hollywood cinema industry continues to produce ideological and political films in the interests of America that it expects and protects by shooting high-budget films.

The reason for choosing this study is to reveal the contribution of American films to the Cold War after the end of the cold war in terms of world political history and to determine how ideological and political code-reflections are reflected in these films; on the other hand, to determine the ideological and political forms of presentation in American Hollywood films, and implicit and explicit propaganda activities. It is also to reveal the political and ideological changes in American films.

Basic definitions

It will be useful to make a basic definition of ideology and propaganda in order to reveal the reflections of ideological and political representations in the cinema studies. The French ideologue Antoine Destutt de Tracy used the term ideology for the first time in 1797 to mark the science of ideas that would be used to provide the right to think for everyone. [1]

Marx’s definition of ideology is noteworthy as well. According to Marx, ideology is conscious narrative, false social consciousness is a social consciousness that distorts real structures and is blind to them. Lieber argued that Marx considered ideology as “compulsory false social consciousness”. [2]

According to Jowett and Linton, cinema is never far away from value judgments, ideological or political tendencies, regardless of the genre. This includes the products of commercial cinema. [3]

As reported by Louis Gianetti, who is known for his research on the relationship between cinema and ideology, shows strong links between films and ideology.

in Gianetti’s words, ‘ideology is usually a structure of ideas that reflect the intense demands and needs of an individual, group or culture’. This term, which is more evocatived among politicians or party platforms may also mean an implicit total of values, including filmmaking. Almost every film presents us with hidden value judgments based on right or wrong, positive or negative filmmakers with ideal human behavior and role models. In short, each film, behavior, institutions tend to give ideological viewpoints through certain characters. [4]

Shortly after the invention of cinema, it was understood how effective it was for propaganda. Cinema is one of the effective tools for propaganda. Cinema is an effective tool for propaganda.

Propaganda; “It is a conscious behavior towards influencing, changing or controlling the beliefs, opinions and behaviors of other groups through individuals and groups in accordance with the demands of the propagandist.” [5]

According to Laswell, propaganda; it has been defined that only meaningful symbols, or, more concretely and less flawlessly speaking, the expression of thought through with stories, rumors, news, pictures and other forms of social communication. [6]

Propaganda can be made in different ways. The secret propaganda used in cinema uses these types more.

White propaganda: It is clearly the propaganda, the source is clear. Clear and transparent

It attaches importance to accuracy, so it also raises confidence. The main material is news.

Gray propaganda: It is blurry propaganda. The source is unclear and it can be uncorroborated. Its main material is rumors. Its purpose is to show something of uncertain, faulty, incomplete like a complete and sufficient; complete, adequate, something of open space is to shade by making it look suspicious. Contradictions are created and the question mark is conjured up in the minds.

Black propaganda: The source is specific, but is shown to come from other sources. In this method, cheating, lying, slander and fake evidence are free and confidentiality is essential.

It aims to change facts, shake beliefs and confuse public opinion. In this context, it aims to make the interlocutors suffer a spiritual collapse. [7]

Using the propaganda in American cinema

A large part of the American film industry represents the official ideology of the United States. In the American cinema, war, security and armed violence are handled with a large percentage. American policy, which changed since the 1980s, directed Hollywood and revealed important films. The films of that period reflected and nurtured changing policies. One of the most striking changes of the period was the return of the myth of the heroic, undefeated white hero, who engaged in war-tout.

In the 60s James Bond series successfully have marketed American political and cultural ideology to other countries. The subject of the Bond films is the Soviet Union, which always threatens the free world, or the only bad that wants to rule the world, or the plan that seeks to take over the world. [8]

The Bond series narrates the elimination of the east-western attacks = by using the incredible capabilities of a single hero and the elimination of advanced technology. Bond films address the expectation of identification with the western audience. The aesthetics of Bond films appeal to the viewers’ beauty, the beauty of Bond and the beauty of the Bond girls and the beauty of the places inhabited by the film and the beauty of the places they live.Sex, violence, flashy consumer goods and advanced techniques are exhibited in fetish dimensions. [9]

The scenario of the Bond films is under the supervision of the Pentagon film liaison office. Officials of this bureau asked for censored of some dialogues in the script of a James Bond film, “Tomorrow Never Dies/Yarın Asla Ölmez,” and requested that the British screenwriter be able to use the US Navy’s ships and helicopters. They said that a sentence in the script could damage newly-formed relations between America and Vietnam and lead to an international crisis. [10]

Rocky and Rambo are during the 80s when there were indications that the US was gaining superiority and capitalism seemed to march towards victory. The cinematic hero that best summarizes of this period is Rambo. The first Rambo film in 1982 was the repair of an American male ego wounded in Vietnam. In Rambo’s second film in 1985, Rambo travels to Vietnam as a killing machine, destroys hundreds of Vietnamese and Russian soldiers, and liberates American troops from hostage and brings them back to the country as a hero. [11]

In the same direction, in the Cold War years, with the temperature of the political agenda; The Rocky series is about the US-The Soviet Union conflict and begins to emphasize the US’s superiority, honesty and pacifism; One of the most striking examples is that Rambo attempted to rescue the occupied Afghanistan by the Soviet Union and to free the country from the hands of the invaders. [12]

Super Heroes In Cinema

American cinema has increased the domination of the cinema by creating heroes that can be defined as classical myth. The first imaginary hero, called “Superman”, was created by Jerry Siegel and Joseph Shuster in the 1930s, when America experienced great economic crisis. Two friends who are fond of science fiction create a superhero with superhuman powers thinking that the mass will be overwhelmed by the economic problems of that period.

Although it is the first cartoon character, it is shown in the cinema in 1978.In the following years, Superman films were filmed in series. This superhero, launched in the whole world, equipped with American colors, has managed not to contradict with American politics, traditions and family structure, not only while saving the world, but also doing a lot of work from recreating the world to joining the Vietnam War. [13]

Heroes such as Batman, Spiderman, Hulk and Terminator have been presented to audiences for the same purpose. The change in American policy after the Cold War was reflected in cinema. Films such as Rambo, Rocky, Superman contribute to a direct propaganda, and philosophically confusing films instead of heroes, were taken to question life. In the 1999 Matrix film was covered idealized “information warfare” and “knowledge domination”. The film is a story about manipulating the norms and criteria of reality that have been made one of the main parameters of the creation and perception of reality by cyber space age power centers. The Matrix questions the effect of the virtual strategy that can reveal the fantastic effects of ‘invisible’ destructiveness in the project of increasing the power of state power in favor of the oligarchy, which is able to completely distort the relations between the individual, the social world and power and manage strategic tools based on space power rather than a terrorist structure. [14]

In Hollywood cinema, many more films were made for American propaganda. Another film that is considered to be effective and successful is ‘’Er Ryan’s Rescue’’ directed by Steven Spielberg. The film tells the heroic battles of six soldiers who were assigned to bring back an American soldier who died on the battlefield. This film causes collective shock in the United States. Hundreds of fainting in the halls where the film is shown and the old soldiers having nervous breakdown are the first symptoms. The Pentagon urgently announce a call center number and opens a psychological support service to respond to thousands of calls from people suffering with grief and sadness. [15]

American troops fought valiantly with the German Nazis in Normandy in the movie Saving Private Ryan, American troops fought valiantly with German Nazis in a place called Normandy in movie of Saving Private Ryan. What is the horror of the concept of war or what the quality of the Second World Warit doesn’t matter where they are, why they die. In fact, the American flag, which fluctuates at the beginning and end of the film, is the main message of the film. [16]

The attacks on September 11, 2001, a turning point in American history, have created a new material for Hollywood. With these attacks, the enemy has shown itself as the focus of terrorism that works globally and independently. September 11 is the reason for the meeting between the big studio representatives in Hollywood, the president of the actors’ union and the president’s distinguished political adviser. The aim of the meeting was to support the American foreign policy of “the War Against Terrorism” with the Hollywood productions. As a result of this meeting, Hollywood supported the Pentagon’s strategy with its films. Terrorism and war-oriented films such as “The Sum of All Fears (2002)“, “Colleteral Damage (2002)”, “Once Upon a Time We were soldiers (2002)” and “Black Hawk Down (2001)” were filmed.

In addition to American Hollywood cinema, cinema has also developed in other countries. However, this film was not as effective as American Hollywood cinema. Yusuf ZiyaGökcek explained that the third cinema language was not as effective as the Hollywood cinema: According to the opinion of the directors in ‘’Africa or Asia’’, it was difficult for them to create a film language that would reflect their identity with the knowledge of the current perspective which is the prerequisite of an independent language. Because the cinema, from the date of the invention of the western bond was developed in a suitable way. [17]

American Hollywood cinema has often used films as a propaganda tool. Although they wanted to use the cinema for propaganda in other countries than Hollywood cinema, the cinema of these countries was not as effective as Hollywood.

Flags of our fathers film’s analysis

Film Production Information’s and Summary

Duration: 132 minutes, Type: War, Production Year: 2006, Director: Clint Eastwood, Cast: Ryan Phillppe, Jesse Bradford, Barry Pepper, Paul Walker, Adam Beach, Benjamin Walker.


In the days when the Second World War continued in full swing in the Pacific Ocean, the US Navy would make a strategically important extraction on a Japanese island called Iwo Jima. At the same time, five friends in the navy, who are back on duty, are excited to take part in this war, but they are aware that they will not be in the real conflict as their duties are hinterland.

In December of 1944 year, Iwo Jima Island was besieged with tens of landing craft and all preparations were completed for extraction. Iwo Jima in which a tiny and uninhabited island that starts with the power of conflict together with the first unity coming to the island, turned into complete hell. American troops were faced with resistance that they did not expect in this small Japanese island, which they thought they could capture in just a few days, and the clashes lasted longer than they expected. The five soldiers who have served back are also performing their duties. In the meantime, the highest peak of the cliffs of the island was captured by American soldiers and an American flag was erected here. A politician, who understands the importance of this planted flag, asks the commander to give him the flag. At the same time, the five soldiers who were back on duty were climbing the hill, which was seized for logistical support, and with they had another American flag.

In accordance with the request of the commander politician, the first flag to be planted is dismantled to these five soldiers, and they are asked to plant a new one. In fact, while doing this duty, which is not so difficult, a photographer from the AP takes photographs of these five soldiers, and this photo has a huge impact on the American public. In a while, five soldiers are seen by all the people as devoted heroes of war and everyone wants to get to know them. In the later days of the war, two of the five soldiers die during the clashes. The politicians who grasp the deep influence of the photograph on the public, present these soldiers to the public and think of asking the American people to help them to contribute to the worsening economic situation. From Three surviving soldiers, John Bradley (Ryan Phillippe) who is medic of navy, Ira Hayes(Adam Beach),is red Indian origin and not dislike being in view and Rene Gagnon (Jesse Bradford), a reporter who refrains from firing his gun, are brought to America by their unity.

These people are introduced to the public while the American people are demanded money and thus it can taking on debt easier from them. However, these three soldiers, who think that their other friends and especially the first planted flag-bearing soldiers deserve to be more heroes than themselves, are not very pleased with the situation. They soul-searching with their own conscience. They are also aware that collecting money for war is vital to their friends.Ira Hayes, one of the protagonists who travel many American cities with long-lasting tours, cannot endure this situation and do his best to return to his unit. Eventually, Ira is sent to his unit by his commanders and the tour is continued by two soldiers. This case continues throughout the Second World War. After the war, heroes are an ordinary American citizen who lives their own lives anymore and they have a lifetime by struggling with the difficulties of life. However, they will never forget the real heroes who planted the first flag on the island and the other friends who planted the second flag together with them.

2.6.2. Secret Ideological and Political Codes in Film

The film was analyzed according to Gianetti’s category of neutral, open and closed and to the propaganda rules of J.M. Domenach as previously explained here.

According to Gianetti’s distinction, this film is a closed film. In this film, propaganda and all kinds of messages are given in a very master way as secret.

In the film, newspaper headlines and some news photographs were used. Those who watched the film were asked to give an idea about that period. The clues about the politics and diplomatic situation of the period were given through these headlines. In the film, the feedback was used many times in order to provide simplicity. Normally, it is intended to show the war in an independent manner as bilateral in the film. But this is not the case in reality. In the film, the Japanese troops are highlighted and in fact, it is emphasized the Japanese are the most important single enemy .

At beginning of the film, a bad image is being created about the Japanese people. It is implied that the Japanese army is very bad.

In the later stages of the film, it has seen expression that the “Japanese are jerk” and, “medals will be given to the soldiers who killed the Japanese with bare hands”.

Clint Eastwood said he wanted to show the real face of the war in this film .However, the director managed to make American propaganda in the film masterly and it was spread all over the film expertly. The classification made by Giannetti as a closed film coincides with this film.

The film emphasizes that the Japanese are very cruel consistently. The Japanese treatment of prisoners has been shown many times. Some scenes have been deliberately exaggerated. It seems like the American soldiers were tried to be shown as innocent during the battles. Since the very beginning of the film, the war is very tough, but it is emphasized that the American army would win the war precisely. The message is given that the American army is very powerful and there is no force to defeat it.

Clint Eastwood has resorted repetition in this film very often. The phenomenon that draws attention in repetitions is ‘heroism’.

It is emphasized that the three soldiers returning to their country are heroes; they are being repeated again in every environment that they encounter each other and they must show the same heroism as all the soldiers fighting for their country. It was clearly stated that the sons of the mothers were more important than the fact that their sons were heroes on the stage where the three soldiers met with their mothers at a reception they attended when they returned to America.

In addition, the American military scenes, which show soldiers risking themselves to save their wounded friends while intense fire oes on are recurrent in the film. In this way, it is stated that American soldiers are moving towards a given goal in a very planned and programmed way in full solidarity. Here too, it is clearly stated that the army is very strong and is organized in a very professional manner.

We often see the American flag in the film. Standing on a hill recovered after intense clashes on the island of Iwo Jima, the American flag is revived with celebrations in front of the masses after the three heroes arrive in the United States. In this way, by using emotions in the minds of the audience, the message of the film is tried to be accepted by the audience. American propaganda is done very well by addressing the emotions of the target audience.

In the film, it is conveyed through the grafting that the heroes often recall the moments of death and remember the difficulties they encountered in the war, as the Japanese ruthlessness indicates to the viewer’s mind the rules of Domenach’s propaganda.

Propaganda is also being made with the music used in the film.

The emotions and thoughts of the American soldiers who fought on Iwo Jima Island are reflected as the thoughts of the whole American people. To provide this, a number of propaganda elements were used in the film. For example, at the beginning of the film, very emotional music is used, and in the last scene, an American flag is shown with emotional music. This situation directly addresses the emotions of the audience and incorporates them into the events of the film. In addition to this, American music are listened to them for the relief of the soldiers waiting on board to make a decal.

In addition, three soldiers who are in celebration stage, and a stadium full of American people greeted them with use-age hurray sounds and greeted them under bright lights and projectors. This situation is repeated in the city that they go and it is continuously displayed throughout the film. In addition, American troops who went to Iwo Jima Island greet the American airplanes flying over their ships with cheering.

The soldiers who returned home from the front, were met with enthusiastic. Nationalistic emotions have been came into prominence. Even on non-Americans who watch the film, these messages have a very strong impact.

If we look at the film in general, we see that many different propaganda techniques have been used.

American soldiers made extraction to a Japanese island and there was a war between the two countries. General propaganda was made in the film. Because of the World War II period in the film and participating in this war has been the subject of the United States and Japan. In this context, the targeted mass is more comprehensive. In terms of its subject, all three kinds of propaganda are included in the film. The political dimensions of the war between the US and Japan are political propaganda, while the American flag and heroism as the main theme of the film is cultural propaganda. In addition, on the island, the weapon and military superiority of the US army is emphasized, to strengthen a military propaganda that may eraser possible points of human contact between an American and a Japanese soldier. The film addresses the crowded groups of people in terms of its target audience and therefore mass propaganda has been used in the film. American society, by planting the American flag, return unharmed into the country declared three military heroes, and thus the morale of society has risen in an instant. The sense of heroism ensured the integration of society. There is also a kind of emotional propaganda in the film. The fact that the elements of flag, homeland, heroism affect American society during the war and that it is reflected in the film with enthusiasm meets the content of emotional propaganda. Again in the film, the propaganda of the American government and its media as a means of influencing the society and gathering aid is included in the white and open propaganda type. According to the last classification type, strategic propaganda was made in the film. Acting on the negative thoughts of the American society towards the Japanese, the masses of people were tried to be affected in this direction.

2.7-Honors and bravenesss film’s analysis

2.7.1. Film Production Information’s and Summary

Duration: 125 minutes, Type: War, Production Year: 2002, Director: Gregory Hoblit Cast: Bruce Willis, Colin Farrell, Terence Dashon Howard, Vicellous Reon Shannon, Cole Hauser, Marcel Iures.


Towards the end of the Second World War, in 1944 Colonel William McNamara (Bruce Willis) was captured by Germany. Meanwhile, Lieutenant Tommy Hart (Colin Farrell), who served as a lieutenant in the US Army, was captured by German soldiers on a mission in December of the same year and sent to a prison camp at Augsburg, where Colonel McNamara was present. The soldiers in the captive camp do not make concessions to the discipline, and everything develops within the framework of the superior-subordinate relationship before captivity. The most important soldier in the prison camp is McNamara, and all the captive soldiers show deep respect to him. The commander of the captive camp is the German Colonel Werner Visser (Marcel Iures) and there is a secret conflict between him and Colonel McNamara.

After Lieutenant Hart was brought to the captive camp, he was first taken to Colonel McNamara and said that he would remain in the same ward as the private soldier although he was an officer. Although he was angry at Colonel McNamara decision, Lieutenant Hart start to stay with private soldiers in the same ward. A few days later, two black American officers are taken to the captive camp and Colonel McNamara decides to they stay in private soldiers’ ward. In the meantime, some of the private soldiers cannot digest the new officers who become black and begin to treat them badly. One night, under the bed of a black officer, a knife is found by German soldiers and the officer is executed by shooting.Lieutenant Lincoln Scott (Terence Dashon Howard), a black officer’s close friend, believes that he fell a victim to a conspiracy and that a sergeant is responsible for this situation. After a while, the sergeant is killed and Lieutenant Scott is shown as a suspect. Colonel McNamara demands the establishment of a military court and appoints Lieutenant Hart as Lieutenant Scott’s lawyer.

However, all this is a game to blow up the German weapons factory near the captive camp. During the trial, the Germans will linger and the German factory will be blown up with the tunnel excavated under the courtroom. Until the last day of the court, this truth was hidden from Lieutenant Scott and Lieutenant Hart. On the last day, Scott and Hart, who learned this fact, showed the necessary support to this mission and successfully implemented the plan. When The German Colonel who saw this was punishing all the captives, Colonel McNamara takes all the responsibility and sacrifices his own life to save the captives’ lives.

2.7.2. Secret Ideological and Political Codes in Film

The film was analyzed according to Gianetti’s classification of neutral, open and closed films The analysis also takes into consideration the propaganda rules of J.M Domenech.The film has been examined in terms of all other propaganda techniques and their rhetorical aspects.

The words of honor, courage, duty, and sacrifice are often emphasized in the film Honor and braveness. As in many American films, the concepts of valor and sacrifice for the homeland were highlighted.

The Germans, led by Hitler, are highlighted as enemies in the film. Throughout the film, relations between captive soldiers and German soldiers were mentioned, and at this point, the enemy phenomenon was concentrated on the Germans. As in The Flags of Our Fathers, this film focuses on the opposite side too. it has been usually emphasized bad sides of German.

The brutality of the Germans has been specifically mentioned that he did not treat his captives fairly in accordance with the Geneva Rules.

In the film, it has been submitted that the events of captive American soldiers are exaggerated.

Especially, this is a good example of the fact that an American soldier, who was trying to throw bread at his captives friends, was shot from his hand by the Germans. It is stated that German soldiers have grudged even bread for American soldiers. This again too shows how bad the Germans are. In addition, it has fallen into that all American soldiers who are captured are systematically tortured by German officers in the film. It is shown that the Germans punished like execute by shooting even the slightest mistakes of the captive soldiers by punishing them, punishing very severe even the simplest mistakes of the American soldiers. The Germans try to leave a bad perception in the viewer’s mind, from the very beginning of the film. In the film also shows a comparison between captive German soldiers in America and captive American soldiers in Germany. It has been emphasized that the captive German soldiers in the United States of America can travel freely in the cities and even have superior rights than the rights of black American citizens and It is emphasized that Americans who are captives in Germany live in extremely difficult conditions.

Other highlights are below in the film :

Although American soldiers are taken captured in the film, they maintain their dignity and live accordingly. American soldiers never make concessions of their dignity at all costs. If necessary, they won’t avoid sacrificing their lives for this cause. Here too, the American people’s sense of nationalism has been swollen. This situation is repeated throughout the film. The exposure of captive soldiers to different torture stands out throughout the film.

In the film, people’s emotional reactions in the subconscious are guided very effectively. Especially at the beginning of the scenes highlighted in the film, it is falling into the fact that the soldiers who were under fire helped their wounded friends at the expense of their own lives.

Besides, the fact that the American soldiers living in the captive camp in the prison camp continued without making any concessions from military discipline as they did in their own troops proves that the US army can always be organized in the best way. The audience is given the message that the American soldiers are organized in a very systematic way and no matter where they are.

In a scene of the film, the German officer, who was extremely unfair to the captives, responded to the American soldier’s remarks of the Geneva Code and he continued: This place is not Geneva.

The American flags that we are accustomed to seeing in many Hollywood films are often shown in this film too.

In addition the American soldiers standing in the presence of the captured soldiers and American planes saluting American prisoners are another element in the film. Even under difficult conditions, American soldiers with national feelings and self-interest attract attention.

On the first page of the Bible, the American flag appears on the first page of the film and this is especially illustrated. There is also a religious propaganda. The American colonel who extended the Gospel to the soldier, who he thought he needed help, showed that he respected the brightly colored American flag on the cover of the Bible.

In the final scene of the film, American soldiers are shown to salute their commanders who commit suicide along with very emotional music and the film ends with this scene.

The film was made on the subject of Germany and the United States and the propaganda of the captive American soldiers in the prison camp.

The film is intended to spread American propaganda not only to American society but to all other countries of the world.

In terms of its subject, political propaganda and military propaganda were implemented During the Second World War, military conflicts between the US and Germany, which were the allies of Germany and Germany, and military resistance were made by reflecting the resistance and superiority of the captive American soldiers in the prison camp

In the film, the targeted audience was not only designated as American society, but mass propaganda was applied to show the bad attitude of the Germans in other countries. It is the propaganda of integration that the American soldiers captured by the Germans struggle against the difficulties through their commanders in the prison camp and to keep their resistance and morale high. American soldiers to fight life in bad conditions, the German soldiers to oppose the pressure and violence of the film, causing painful and sad emotions, emotional propaganda has been done.

Finally, strategic propaganda has been included. It is shown in this context that German hostility is justified hostility, and all kinds of torture to vulnerable prisoners, but that the American soldier is not defeated by maneuvering in spite of everything.


Hollywood cinema bears the stamp of the United States of America’s official views. Some Hollywood films are prepared with the financial support of the USA administration and have used as a propaganda tool for the establishment of US policies all around the world.

The US markets its culture to other nations through Hollywood films.

Some movies in Hollywood cinema, ideological-political codes can be seen clearly in some films, while in some films ideological and political messages are hidden within the film.

Cinema films affect audiences very deeply. The viewer focuses only on the film during the process of watching the film. He watches the film very carefully. At this point, the film directly addresses the person’s subconscious.

The messages given by the film affect the subconscious without realizing whether the audience accepts or not.Sometimes the audience may not like the messages, but in some movies the audience is forced to take sides.

Good or bad is represented in somemovies.Even if the message is a message that the viewer does not support, the viewer is forced toembrace it, since it representsgood in the film. Unwittingly he adopts that message.

As a result, Hollywood cinema, which uses the communication process associated with the idea of ​​propaganda, provides the representation of ideology in itsfilms in manyways.

*This study was prepared from the thesis titled “Ekrem ÇELİKİZ, Post-ColdWar, Ideological-Political Presentation in Hollywood Films” (Master Thesis /, Beykent University, 2011), Master Thesis.


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Manuscript was submitted: 12.05.2019.

Peer Reviews: since 20.06.2019 till 30.06.2019.


Сп. „Реторика и комуникации“, бр. 41, октомври 2019.

Rhetoric and Communications Journal, Issue 41, October 2019